BIOL 2320 – Nutritional Science Assignment Essay

BIOL 2320 – Nutritional Science Assignment Essay

An understanding of the fundamental principles of nutrition can help people make important decisions regarding a healthy diet to keep the body functioning as it should. This course introduces students to the fundamentals of the nutritional sciences, with an emphasis on the biochemistry of human systems. Through discussions, lab work, and other practical assignments, students explore the body’s digestive and metabolic processes, the components of a healthy diet, the role of nutrition in growth and health through the life cycle, and the relationships between nutrition, health, culture, and the environment. Through this course, students gain knowledge needed to apply scientific principles when interpreting nutritional information.

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Instructor/Professor: Dr. Stephanie Fischer Daugherty
Office: BEP 104 Office phone: 903-566-7013
Office Hours: MW 8-9, T Th by appointment (email me!)
Email: sdaugherty@uttyler.edu
Scheduled meeting times: Mondays & Wednesdays 2:40-4:00
Course Description:
This course will introduce non-Biology-major, health professions focused students to the
principles of Microbiology. Pre-requisites: Completion of or concurrent enrollment in
Intro to Chemistry is recommended, but not required.
Course Objectives:
1. Students will learn how genes control protein expression in living cells, and how
information flows from genes to mRNA to proteins.
2. Students will learn how enzymes function in the cell, and how enzymes control
metabolism and other traits in microbes
3. Students will learn the cellular characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and
will study viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, and parasitic
infections
4. Students will learn how antibiotics work to target specifically prokaryotes, and also
how enzymes in bacteria can confer resistance to antibiotics
5. Students will learn basics of the immune system, including the functions of fever,
antibodies, memory cells, and cytotoxic cells. Students will understand how
vaccines work to immunize individuals, and how herd immunity works to protect an
entire population.
6. Students will develop critical thinking skills, writing skills and discussion skills as they
do group discussions in class, and prepare essay answers using a scaffolded
learning system directed by the professor.
Course Textbook:
Recommended: Microbiology Fundamentals, A Clinical Approach by Marjorie Kelly
Cowan, 2nd edition.
Other editions will also work. Do NOT purchase additional “online learning” packages
from publisher.
There is an eTextbook version available from the publisher, you can try it out here:
http://www.coursesmart.com/IR/4169933/007736984X?__hdv=6.8
It is about $100 for 180 day rental.
Other Resources: online resources and links to research papers will be distributed via
Canvas, Jupiter, or dropbox.
Students are expected to attend all lectures and discussions. Points are awarded for
attendance and participation in mandatory lectures and group discussions.
Points may or may not be awarded for a make up quiz for an unexcused absence at the
professor’s discretion, with consideration that quizzes are open for one week and
therefore illness on the due date is not truly an issue about an absence. Medical
absences or hardship absences extending over more than 2 quizzes (even if not
consecutive) mean no further make ups past the due date will be offered, unless the
problem has been documented through the university Student Accessibility Resources
office. Policy for entire semester is, if student misses an assignment and wants the
opportunity to make it up, student must create a semester planner with all due dates
entered for the semester, and show it to the professor (it may be electronic or on paper).
Once professor verifies planner, assignment will be reopened. This offer is only valid for
one assignment.
If a student misses a class or exam due to a documented emergency, a make up
assignment or exam will be determined by consultation with the professor. A make up
exam, if scheduled, will occur within one week of the student’s return to class. If a
student misses a class or exam without contacting the professor ahead of the start time
of the exam, no make up assignment or exam need be offered.
Examinations & Coursework:
Four exams will be given, focusing on lecture material, each worth 17% of the
final grade
Quizzes will be given online, for a total of 16% of the final grade
Quizzes will be given online over reading assigned from outside sources,
including peer reviewed science articles, comprising 8% of the final grade
Group Discussions and Mandatory Lectures will be done collectively on specified
class days for 8% of the final grade.
If a student misses a class or exam due to a documented emergency, a make up
assignment or exam will be determined by consultation with the professor. It a student
misses a class or exam without contacting the professor, no make up assignment or
exam need be offered.
Rules for exams: exams are given online, but in class (you must attend class to take the
exam), on either a laptop or an ipad tablet. The device on which you take the exam is
the only device that may be in the student’s possession (please put phones or other
devices in your bag). Smartwatches & headphones are not allowed during exams. Hats
and hoods will be removed during exams. If these rules are not followed, student will be
given a zero for the exam.
Canvas, Dropbox, and other online tools:
Digital information exchanges for this course will take place on the university Canvas
system and on additional online tools. The first day of class will introduce you to these
tools and how to access them.
Grading:
Grading will be performed consistent with UT Tyler policy.
Percentage of total possible points Letter grade
90-100% A
80-89.4% B
70-79.4% C
60-69.4% D
00-59.4% F
Final grades are rounded up (69.5% is rounded up to a 70%).
Make Ups, Withdrawals & Incompletes
No make-up exams will be given for unexcused absences. If you must be absent for an
exam, please email the professor AHEAD OF TIME. The time-stamp on the email
MUST BE BEFORE THE EXAM BEGINS. If you have a medical emergency, a note
from a doctor is required to schedule a make up exam. Only one make-up exam will be
scheduled; if you miss the make-up, or miss another exam later, no new make-up exam
will be scheduled, unless the problem is documented through the Student Accessibility
Resource office. The make-up exam may be a version of the original exam, or may be
an essay version of the exam, at the professor’s discretion.
Make up material will be provided at the professor’s discretion, dependent upon
attendance in lecture, completed assignments, and the amount of time elapsed since
material was missed. Please email the professor to obtain make up material, after
checking on Canvas and with colleagues to determine what is needed. Please follow
up the email with personal contact if an answer has not been received within 1 week.
It is the student’s responsibility to consult with the professor, Canvas, and
peers/colleagues in a timely manner to obtain missed material. Materials may not be
provided after 3 weeks, or after an exam is given, depending upon whether materials
are pertinent to next exam.
The last day to withdraw from the course and receive a “W” on your transcript is
____________. Please contact the registrar’s office for paperwork to formally withdraw.
An professor’s signature is required. If you fail to get a withdrawal form submitted on
time, you will receive an “F” in the course. You are NOT automatically withdrawn, even
if you stop attending classes. You must file the form.
Expectations
Students are expected to participate in the course, including keeping track of and
completing assignments on time (online quizzes and homeworks included). Students
are expected to attend the “mandatory lectures” in person, unless they have a
documented excuse. Multiple absences for discussions require documentation through
the Student Accessibility Resource office. Students are expected to behave in
accordance with University Policy and with safety regulations dictated by the laboratory
setting. Tobacco and e-cigarettes pose a distraction and potential medical risk to other
students, and will not be used in class or in lab. Students are expected to behave
professionally and not create a disruptive learning environment for fellow students.
Extra Credit
NO, NO, NO, I repeat, NO Extra Credit will be offered at the end of the course.
Extra credit assignments MAY be offered to the entire class as a bonus assignment
during the course, at the professor’s discretion. They will not be offered at the end of
the course to adjust your grade, and they will NOT be offered on an individual basis.
Best Practices and Hints
Read textbook chapters assigned BEFORE due date, and before coming to class.
Familiarize yourself with the terms, pictures, and overall outlines. Even just 20-30
minutes of effort before coming to class will benefit you in terms of what you can
understand and take notes on during lecture.
Print lecture outline slides and bring them to class, or bring them on an electronic device
via dropbox (see “Tech Tools for the Course” addendum). Take notes where you find
the professor has filled in slides, provided explanations, or is giving hints about
important topics. Use keywords, rather than full sentences.
Lecture slides with the professor’s notes will be posted online one week before the
exam. (Enough time to fill in blanks, if you’ve missed something, but not enough time to
rely on them rather than coming to class).
Your professor is a neuroscientist and specifically studied learning and memory. Three
key points to remember:
1. Reading is not enough. PRACTICE TESTING IS CRITICAL. Find a study
group, or use flashcards to self-test. Only then will you know whether you
have true command of the material.
2. Sleep is when memory is consolidated from short term to long term memory.
Study right before sleeping, if possible. For exams, STUDY and then
SLEEP….
3. I am a firm believer in “whole brain” recall, rather than memorization. I will
give cues to multiple brain lobes (pictures, root words, reading material,
memory cues, and reasoning). I want you to be able to reason through a
problem, not memorize an answer. Use group discussion activities as a
guide both in what to study, and how to think about problems.
Other Resources:
I highly recommend two websites: scientificamerican.com and sciencedaily.com , which
are brilliant for keeping up with science happenings on a daily basis.
There are several online microbiology resources that will help you if you need extra
information.
Online Textook of Bacteriology: http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/index.html
Medical Microbiology online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7627/
Microbiology & Immunology online: http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/book/welcome.htm
Flashcards: for a $19.95 fee, you may view and use flashcards created by other
students. For our textbook, search tags: microbiology, then Black, then MCBC 2010 at
the flashcard exchange website: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/membership
If you have a disability or accommodation, please see the professor during the first
week of class, and follow up with an email, so that we may arrange appropriate
accommodations.
Lecture Objective Student Learning Goals
3 factors of molecular
interaction
Molecules interact, and their interactions are
governed by their charge,
hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, and 3 dimentional
shape
Information flow Information in a cell is stored in DNA, in units known
as genes. This information is passed to messenger
RNA, and from there it is used to make proteins.
Enzymes Enzymes (and to some degree, ribozymes) do much
of the “work” in the cell, in terms of metabolism,
growth, and reproduction. Which enzymes a cell has
determines its characteristics, as we will see in lab
tests.
Building Blocks of Cells Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
are the main building blocks of cells, and are built by
linking atoms together into molecules, and molecules
together into macromolecules.
Metabolism Life is dependent upon the ability to store and
harvest energy. Molecules can store energy in high
energy bonds, and then release energy when those
bonds are broken. Specific processes
(photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, anaerobic
respiration, and fermentation) are used by cells to
store and release energy from molecules. One of
the main chemical “batteries” of the cell is the
molecule ATP
Growth & Culture Cells have specific processes to grow and reproduce
themselves. Environmental conditions can affect
enzyme function, which in turn will affect bacterial
growth rates and metabolism.
Cells Humans are eukaryotes, with nuclei and other
membrane bound organelles, a complex genome,
and mitochondria for aerobic respiration. Bacteria
are prokaryotes, with no membrane bound
organelles, no nuclei, a shorter genome, and aerobic
respiration occurs at their outer membrane. Most
bacteria have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan,
and the differences in bacterial cell structure can be
used to classify bacteria in the lab. Differences
between bacteria cells and human cells can be
targeted by antibiotic drugs to selectively inhibit the
growth of bacteria, while leaving the eukaryotic hosts
unharmed (usually).
Antibiotics & Resistance Antibiotics are drugs which are used to selectively
inhibit the growth of bacteria. There are multiple
possible targets and mechanisms of action.
Antibiotic resistance occurs when a bacterial cell is
able to circumvent the activity of antibiotics, either
through an enzyme that stops antibiotic action, or a
mutation that alters the target of an antibiotic.
Resistance can be caused by random mutation or by
selection. Education of patients as to why following
instructions when prescribed antibiotics is critical is
emphasized.
Genetics Review of information flow. Mutations occur as
changes in the sequence of DNA, which thereby
alters sequence of mRNA, which can then alter
protein structure and function. Students are
expected to explain how a single gene mutation
(examples: sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, etc)
can cause disease. Epigenetics (and effect on
multiple generations) is briefly introduced. p53 and
DNA repair is introduced, along with the ability of
some viruses, such as HPV, to disable p53 and
thereby predispose to dysregulated cell growth and
potentiate cancer development.
Viruses & Antivirals Viruses are introduced as distinct from cells.
Classification according to structure and nucleic acid
is introduced. Stages of viral infection in a cell are
delineated, and special properties of retroviruses
(reverse transcriptase, integrase) are emphasized.
We will discuss the “functional cure” of HIV positive
babies and why it is called a “functional cure” rather
than a cure. The flu virus is emphasized, and the
differences between seasonal flu viruses and the
bird flu virus is explored. The term cytokine storm is
introduced and explained. Timely virus topics are
explored, including CHIKV, Ebola, Dengue, and
West Nile. Antivirals are discussed in terms of their
action and their severe limitations. Comparison is
drawn between antibiotic resistance and selection for
antiviral resistant strains. Laurie Garrett’s talks on
limited usefulness of Tamiflu are utilized in class for
discussion.
Prions Prions are introduced as non-viral, non-cellular,
proteinaceous infectious particles. Mechanism of
prions and their effect on the nervous system is
introduced. Story of how difficult it was to get
medical community to accept completely new
paradigm is discussed. (See additional information in
Germicides and Sterilization)
Fungi and Parasites,
Antifungals and
Antiparasiticals
Opportunistic fungal pathogens are introduced, as
well as secondary infections resulting from antibiotic
use. Parasitical pathogens are introduced. Malaria is
used as example parasite life cycle, with directions to
CDC sites for life cycles of any other parasites of
interest. Antifungal medicines briefly mentioned and
general mechanism of action explained (not in
detail!). Antiparasitical medicines briefly mentioned
and general mechanism of action explained (not in
detail). Emphasis is placed on fungi and parasites
being eukaryotic, so therapeutic index trickier).
Koch’s Postulates Scientific Method is emphasized here with a detailed
explanation of how “cause of disease” is determined
and validated. Aspects of a disease that might make
fulfilling Koch’s Postulates difficult are explored (long
incubation time, difficult to culture pathogen, etc).
Story of HIV and of Helicobacter Pylori are discussed
to emphasize points. This lecture is carried over into
a lab activity where students are given
epidemiological information and must hypothesize
causative pathogen and describe scientific method to
test using Koch’s postulates.
Epidemiology & Disease Epidemiology and the process of human disease are
discussed. Types of epidemiological studies and
how to interpret data are given in an exercise.
Portals of entry, incubation times, prevalence vs.
incidence graphs and morbidity and mortality data
are introduced. Propagation of disease is discussed,
and how disease spread is controlled, with example
of SARS outbreak.
Immune System The immune system is introduced, beginning with
first line defenses. Second line defenses are
introduced and the process of eliciting a fever
response are learned as though studens must
explain them to a patient. Emphasis is placed on
fever being beneficial up to 104 degrees, and why.
Inflammation is introduced, but detailed mechanism
not explored. 3rd line of defense (adaptive immune
response) is introduced, from antigen presentation to
humoral and cytotoxic response. Effects of
suppressor T cells and memory cells discussed.
Vaccines What vaccines are and how they work is explored to
the point where students can explain this to patients.
Examples of first developed vaccine by naturally
attenuated virus (smallpox) given, to development of
artificially attenuated virus (polio), to genetically
engineered acellular vaccines. Herd immunity
introduced. Problems with whooping cough vaccine
are expolored to the point of students being able to
explain why reduced protection with modern TDaP to
patients. Discussion ends with evidence why autism
is not caused by vaccines.
At this point the class
switches from concept
based format to specific
disease format
Systemic Diseases of:
Immune System Autoimmune disease and immune deficiency are
differentiated, with students expected to be able to
explain the difference. Examples of each are given,
along with causative pathogens.
Skin & Wounds Diseases classically associated with the skin are
introduced briefly, along with causative pathogens
and etiology. Included: scalded skin syndrome,
MRSA, Rubella, Measles, etc. Gangrenous wounds,
burn infection, and pseudomonas infection are also
introduced.
Nervous System Diseases classically associated with the nervous
system are introduced briefly, along with causative
pathogens and etiology. The blood brain barrier is
emphasized as primary protective boundary, and
also mentioned as problematic in aiding drug
delivery to CNS. Included: meningitis (bacterial and
viral), encephalitis, polio, leprosy, fungal infections.
Cardio & Body Diseases classically associated with the cardiac
system are introduced briefly, along with causative
pathogens and etiology. Particular attention is paid
to strep infection leading to rheumatic fever, and
leads to a discussion of rapid antibiotic treatment of
suspected strep throat. Other diseases focused on
include septicemia, puerperal fever, neonatal
meningitis & Group B strep, Systemic infections
mentioned in this lecture include anthrax, yersenia
pestis plague, lyme disease, ebola, CHIKV, EpsteinBarr virus, and toxoplasmosis.
Respiratory Diseases classically associated with the respiratory
system are presented here, with differentiation
between upper respiratory tract infections and lower
respiratory tract infections. Strep throat, sinusitis,
bronchitis, diphtheria, and the common cold are
mentioned, as well as pneumonia, tuberculosis,
whooping cough, RSV, Flu, SARS, and fungal
respiratory diseases. Students learn about tests for
strep and do an example “clinical practice” in lab.
Gastrointestinal Diseases classically associated with GI tract are
presented, and ear infections are included here as
usually introduced via the Eustachian tube, although
by bacteria associated with respiratory infections.
Mouth and dental caries are introduced, as well as
mumps, food poisoning bacterial pathogens,
norovirus, and GI parasites. Pinworms are
discussed as most common parasitical infection in
US seen in general practice. Clostridium difficile is
introduced with discussion of antibiotic treatment as
a predisposing factor, with expectation that students
will be able to explain this as if to a patient.
Urogential Tract Diseases classically associated with urinary tract are
presented, including pathogens usually associated
with UTI (and students learn about tests for these
and do an example “clinical practice” in lab).
Pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis are also
introduced briefly. Leptospirosis is introduced as a
timely and local concern. Diseases classically
associated with the gential tract are presented,
including pathogens that cause pelvic inflammatory
disease. Normal flora of urogenital system is
discussed and its protective effect via competition.
Gardnerella as a trigger pathogen for bacterial
vaginitis is introduced. Parasitical and fungal
pathogens are also introduced. STDs are introduced
and distinction drawn between bacterial STDs
treatable by antibiotics (albeit concerns over
increasing resistance) vs. viral STDs. Herpesvirus
1&2 are introduced, as is HPV

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BIOL 2320 week 4 Nutritional Science Assignment Essay

Biology 3224 Fall
2018
WRITING BIOLOGY
A One Semester, online Course
Maximum Enrolment 20
Instructor: M.B. (Brock) Fenton; bfenton@uwo.ca
Brief course description: This course is intended for students who enjoy reading and writing
and who seek to improve their writing skills. During the course, each student can complete up to
9 – 500 word long essays as well as one 1000 word long exit essay at the end of the course. The
principle behind this approach is that writing improves with practice. Students must also make
spoken presentations about each of their essays to others in the class. This will provide many
opportunities to receive and to give feedback about writing style and accuracy. Each essay will
focus on a specific topic in biology, the actual choice being made by the student. Course material
is delivered and received online and through a virtual classroom (Collaborate UE).
Please note that:
a) Students enrolled in this course must have access to (and use) a working webcam and
microphone for each session they attend. Everyone must participate all the tutorial
sessions in which they are enrolled.
b) Everyone should have a quiet place from which to join the class. A noisy background
(e.g., a café, meeting hall, hallway) seriously interferes with one’s ability to participate in
a tutorial.
c) Make sure that your inbox has room to receive emails and attachments about the course.
d) Name your essay (and editing) files so that I can find them (your surname essay1.doc(x)). For
essays you edit, author surname Essay x Joe Smith editor. Do not use “essay 1, 2, etc.” because
this makes them too easy for me to lose.
How I grade essays: This course is not about “right” answers, it is about writing, speaking, and
listening effectively. Here are six sure fire ways to lose marks: a) for using the passive voice and
for not making direct statements; b) for using fill (junk or weasel) words (by definition words that
add to the word count but not to the content); c) for repetition; d) for making incorrect statements
(e.g., whales have gills or parental behaviour is altruistic); e) for not following advice from
editor(s); and f) for spelling and grammatical mistakes.
How I grade editing: I go over your editing in the following order: a) first I read the overview
you have provided of the essay you edited; b) then I look at the details of your editing – have you
made useful suggestions to improve the clarity and accuracy of the writing?; c) did you catch
tracts of passive voice and wasted words? Are your comments accurate and clear?
How I grade participation: In each tutorial, I note who has asked questions, whether about
presentations of essays or about editing. I take note of questions about details clearly covered in
the presentation. I keep count of questions and use this as a measure of participation.
Feedback as the course progresses: In addition to graded and marked up essays, at the end of
each month I will write to each student about their “progress to date” in the course.
2
Table of Contents
1. Course Schedule page 2
2. Alerts page 3
3. Syllabus page 3
4. The essays page 3
5. Nine Tips About Writing Essays page 4
6. Use Feedback to Advantage page 5
7. Four Important Learning Tools page 5
8. Spoken Presentations page 6
9. Grades for Participation page 6
10. Learning Outcomes page 6
11. Logistics page 7
12. Attendance and Participation page 7
13. Assessing Student Performance
(Methods of Evaluation) page 7
14. Essay Checklist page 8
15. Use the Correct Word But Not Passive Voice page 9
16. An excellent reference book page 9
17. Some Relevant Readings page 9
18. Citing Published Works and Web Sites page 10
19. Please follow the directions or … page 11
20. Plagiarism page 11
21. Support Services page 12
1. Course Schedule
Essays 1 through 9 are due (submitted to me) by noon on Wednesday.
10 Sept. Week 1 – assignment 1 about your favourite course to date; edited by MBF
17 Sept. Week 2 – assignment 2 about a species edited and graded by MBF
24 Sept. Week 3 – assignment 3 about an author edited and graded by MBF edited by a
Classmate.
1 Oct. Week 4 – assignment 4 about any topic in biology edited and graded by MBF edited by
a classmate.
8 – 12 Oct no class meetings, Thanksgiving and fall study break
15 Oct. Week 5 – assignment 5 about a species edited and graded by MBF, edited by a
Classmate.
22 Oct. …Week 6, assignment 6 about an author edited and graded by MBF and edited by a
Classmate.
29 Oct. Week 7 – assignment 7 about any topic in biology, edited and graded by MBF and
edited by a classmate
5 Nov. Week 8 – assignment 8 about any topic in biology edited and graded by MBF and
edited by a classmate.
12 Nov. Week 9 assignment 9 free choice edited and graded by MBF and edited by a
classmate.
19 Nov. Week 10 Students present the story line for their exit essays.
3
26 Nov. Week 10 no assignments due
3 Dec. Week 11 – exit assignment due at noon on 3 Dec (2018). Here students are
challenged to merge three of their previous essays into one, 1000 word long integrated
presentation. As a P.S. to the essay address the “what I learned” and “what I should
have learned” components of the course.
2. Alerts
A. Essays and edits must be submitted on time: see page 3
B. Files must be named correctly: see page 1
C. Scientific names must be correctly presented: see page 11
D. Citations must be presented in the course format: see page 10
E. Turnitin overlap must be 0%: see page 6
F. Essay checklist: see page 8
G. Costly mistakes: see page 11
3. Syllabus
The purpose of this course is to provide students in-depth practice in writing and making
brief oral presentations about specific topics in biology. During one semester, each student will
write and submit three kinds of essays dealing with a range of topics in biology (see below here
and in section 7). In tutorials, students will make weekly two minute long spoken presentations
about each of their essays and participate in reviewing and editing the writing of other students
enrolled in the course. This will provide experience in giving and receiving feedback about
work. We will achieve these goals through direct and indirect discussion, and interactions with
others in the course. For the exit assignment, students will build three of their essays into one
1000 word long essay.
The specific focus will be writing general factual material about biology on topics that
focus on species, people, and specific subjects. Write your essays for an audience of biology
students. For essays 2 – 9 inclusive, students must base each essay on one or two articles
published in scientific journals. Please note that students choose the specific biology content of
the course. As you begin the course, remember that your exit essay must draw on three of your
other essays.
To increase contact among students and the instructor, we will use two types of
scheduled weekly virtual classroom (Collaborate UE) sessions. The first (11:30 h Monday) is a
meeting of the entire class. The second is a meeting of the members of each tutorial group. As
noted above, everyone must attend and participate in the tutorial session in which they are
registered. In the context of this course “editing” means using Track Changes to provide
detailed, specific suggestions about use of words and clarity of writing. These will be combined
with comments in the margin.
4. The Essays
You will write three kinds of essays in this course. Essay 1 (~500 words) will be edited
but not graded. Essay 1 will give me an idea about your writing and you feedback from me.
Essays 2-9 (~500 words each) will be graded and edited. They are intended to give you practise
in writing and editing. The exit essay (1000 words) challenges you to produce a more integrated
piece drawing together the essences of three of essays 2-9.
4
In each essay, students should strive to use words to advantage, to write clearly and
accurately without repetition. Every essay must be submitted to me (bfenton@uwo.ca) by
noon on Wednesday, and simultaneously uploaded to Turnitin. English is the language of
instruction.
Essay 1. Please write 500 words about your favourite university course to date. The essay should
explain your choice. What were the best parts of the course? What were the parts of the course that
had the most room for improvement? This essay needs no citations or references. The purpose
of this essay is to provide me with an indication of each student’s writing skills as well as a view
of what course(s) you have particularly enjoyed. I will edit but not grade this essay.
Essays 2 – 9 (are always due by noon on Wednesday). In these 500 word long essays, students
are expected to correctly present scientific names and citations for the works that form the
basis for the essay. My grades for each essay will be based on the writing (the story line, the
choices and uses of words) but only after marks have been deducted for not following
directions (see below).
To streamline the process, each student has been assigned a volume of a journal. Pick
appropriate original papers from the volume of your journal whether you are writing about a
species, an author or a topic. Use the following steps:
a) In the electronic library, go to the journal assigned to you.
b) Now go to the volume assigned to you.
c) Each volume will consist of several “numbers” (issues). Go through the table of contents
of an issue until you find an appropriate paper (about a species, an author you find
interesting or on a topic that interests you). This paper will be your primary source.
d) Read the paper. You can/may use the literature cited in the paper to find another paper on
the same species (by the same author or on the same topic).
e) write out the story line (nutgraph – see below).
f) draft the essay.
g) Prepare a 2 minute (timed by stopwatch) presentation about your essay(s) to make to the
class. Do not read your presentation.
No two students have been assigned the same volume of a journal.
Please use the supplemental material to advantage for presenting scientific names and
citations.
5. Nine Tips About Writing Essays
One. Pick a story line.
How? Each 500 word essay must be based on at least one scientific paper. The
paper you choose establishes your story line. Please remember that your essay
tells a story. There has to be a title, a beginning, a middle and an end. To minimize
interruption to the flow of the essay and to lower the Gunning Fog Index, please
put sources for the essay and relevant scientific names at the bottom (see sample
essay). Be sure that the information is accurate, complete, and correctly
presented.
Two. Find material.
5
How? Go to the journal volume assigned to you, find an appropriate paper (about
the species, the topic or written by the biologist). Use Google Scholar and the
electronic library. Read the paper, choose a story line.
Three. Prepare your story line (aka a nut graph – see below), plan your essay
Four. Then write.
*Write clearly.
*Choose your words with care. Say what you mean, mean what you say.
*Use the active voice (see below). Make direct statements.
*Avoid repetition.
* Focus on your story line (hence the restriction to writing each essay about one
or two scientific papers).
*do not use abbreviations or acronyms.
* do not try to edit as you write … keep the two exercises separate.
Five. Then let the first draft sit for a day.
Six. Now go back and read the whole draft aloud to yourself. Be sure to speak each
word. As you read, check your spelling and grammar. This is a good
opportunity to get a classmate to read and comment on your draft and you to
reciprocate by doing the same for them. Please note that in this course reading
over and commenting on an essay written by a classmate is not plagiarism
(unless you copy someone else’s work and submit it as your own).
Seven. Assess the clarity of your writing by determining the Gunning Fog Index (GFI) of
what you have written. Get your GFI calculated at http://gunning-fog-index.com/.
To some people an “ideal” GFI is 7 or 8, and anything > 12 is considered very
hard to read. Plays by William Shakespeare, books by Mark Twain, and The
Bible have GFIs of 6. The sample essay has a Gunning Fog Index of >10 — I
should have done better than that. Try to make your GFI < 10. You must
provide a GFI for each of your essays.
You will see that using short sentences and “simple” words is the way to a low
GFI. If you have time, experiment with your writing. You can read more about
the GFI at http://www.readabilityformulas.com/gunning-fog-readabilityformula.php. At this site there is an option to calculate the GFI for something you
have written (copy, paste and click). To appreciate the GFI, use the sample essay.
What is the GFI? How could it have been reduced?).
Eight. Prepare supplemental material.
Nine. Now submit the essay to me. Then upload it to Turnitin — do follow the directions
about format and submission. Only upload the body of your essay to Turnitin (not
the supplementary materials, such as scientific names and citations).
6. Use feedback to advantage. Please take the time to review the edits on your essays, whether
6
they are from me or from a class mate. To make it obvious to me that you have done so
and used the comments to advantage. Do this by inserting a paragraph into the beginning of
your next essay outlining how you benefitted from the feedback. No this does not count in
the essay word count.
7. Four Important Learning Tools:
a) The GFI (Gunning Fog Index) provides you with objective, quantitative feedback
about the clarity of your writing. Use it to advantage. Our goal in this course is
GFI <10.
b) Turnitin provides an objective, quantitative assessment of overlap between your essay
and other sources. Our standard in this course is a Turnitin overlap of 0%. You
will lose marks for overlap over 0%.
c) A story line or Nut Graph is a 25 word summary of the main point of your essay.
Written in sentences (not in point form), the nut graph can help you focus on the main
point(s) of your writing.
d) copy your draft essay and paste it into Google Translate …. To have “google” read it
to you. This is an excellent way to check for clarity and word choice.
8. Spoken Presentations
You must present an overview of your essay in 2 minutes (timed by stopwatch). Use
the full time. Be prepared to lose marks if you are too short or if you run over. Practice
your presentation. You will make one about each of essays 1 through 8. Be sure to ask
other students at least one question about their essay presentation. In each tutorial we
will try to generate discussion about the essays we hear about.
Please do not read your presentation = do not read your presentation.
The other side of this coin listen carefully to the presentations of others. This means
that you have heard what was said … and should be able to ask good questions (as
opposed to asking something directly covered in the presentation).
9. Grades for Participation
I will keep track of the questions asked by each student in tutorial and use this
information to calculate grades for participation. The purpose of this approach is to
generate discussion about the biology presented in students’ essays.
10. Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:
1.) practice writing on topics in Biology focusing on content, clarity, style and
organization.
2.) practice editing focusing on how to make useful comments that benefit other and how
to benefit from the comments of others.
3.) review for the correctness of the content of others.
4.) practice making clear, succinct oral presentations.
7
Specific writing assignments will expand the student’s factual knowledge about biology,
broadly defined. But factual knowledge is not as important as learning about writing, including
giving and receiving assessments of work. Combining three assignments into one longer essay
will further expand the writing experience associated with the course. Remember, however that
getting the facts “right” is important, make sure you know enough biology to make smart
decisions about the content of your essay. For example, whales do not have gills, they have
lungs. Parental behaviour is genetically selfish, it is not altruistic.
11. Logistics
We will use Blackboard Elluminate, a virtual classroom, for meetings and discussion. All
of these sessions will be archived, allowing students to review previous sessions.
Students are required to submit their essays by noon on each Wednesday. For essays
1 through 5 I will return marked up material by 17:00 h on each Thursday. For submissions
edited by classmates (essays 3 to 9, inclusive), students must submit their edits to me by 17:00
h on Thursday. I will return the submissions to authors by 10:00 h on Friday. Please note
that I do not accept late essays or late edits.
Your exit essay is due by noon on Monday 3 December 2018.
On submissions edited by classmates, I will review the comments to assess participation
and effectiveness. As noted above, you must submit your essays directly to the instructor
(bfenton@uwo.ca) and upload it to Turnitin. Files submitted directly to me (bfenton@uwo.ca)
must be .doc or .docx. Please be sure that the file name begins with your surname, followed by
your initials and the topic (e.g., FentonMB Essay1.doc). These files should include scientific
names and citations (maximum 3) – as per instructions below. Students must follow instructions
exactly, as if submitting a manuscript to a scientific journal for publication.
All required papers will be subject to submission for textual similarity review to the
commercial plagiarism detection software under licence to the University for detecting
plagiarism. All papers submitted for checking will be included as source documents for the
reference database for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of papers subsequently submitted to
the system. Use of the service is subject to the licensing agreement, currently between The
University of Western Ontario and Turnitin.com (http;//www.turnitin.com).
Files submitted to Turnitin.com must not include citations.
12. Attendance and Participation
Students are expected to attend the classes held at 11:30 on Mondays throughout the
course. Each student is required to attend and participate in the weekly meeting of the tutorial
section in which he/she is registered. Each student is allowed to miss one tutorial, no questions
asked, but after that the penalty is 2 marks (2% of final grade) for each tutorial missed. I will
take attendance and pay attention to those who do not arrive on time and/or leave early. Being
late and/or leaving early incurs a penalty of 1 mark (1% of final grade) per occasion.
After each presentation about an essay, be prepared to ask a question of the speaker or to
answer the questions she/he posed. Grades will be awarded for participating in question and
answer sessions.
8
13. Assessing Student Performance (Methods of Evaluation)
The following elements will be assessed to evaluate student performance: story line,
accuracy, effectiveness of word use, grammar, spelling and overall content. Remember,
you are writing about biology based on one original paper. One grade will be awarded for
these parts of the essay. This grade will be reduced if students do not follow directions
(about word counts, GFI, scientific names, journal citations, use of Turnitin, etc.).
Grade breakdown: 40% writing (25% based on essays 2 – 9; 15% based on exit essay);
15% for spoken presentations and 15% participation in question and answer sessions; 30%
editing/reviewing. There is no examination in this course. Students will be assessed on their
performance as “editors” and “reviewers” … their work on other students’ essays.
For essays 2 – 9, I will use each student’s top 6 grades (for essays and spoken
presentations) towards their final grade in the course. What does this mean to
you?
a) Write at least seven 500 word essays and 1 exit essay. Write more and discard
lower grades. Write less and accumulate grades of “0”.
b) Make at least six in class presentations of essays. Make more and discard
lowest grades. Make less and accumulate grades of “0”.
c) Edit at least six essays of others. Edit five and discard your lowest grade.
Edit less and accumulate grades of “0”.
Please remember to submit your essays to me (bfenton@uwo.ca) by noon each
Wednesday. I will return graded and marked up essays by 17:00 h on each Thursday. For
essays edited by classmates (5 to 9, inclusive), students must submit their edits to me by
17:00 h on Thursday. I will return the submissions to authors by 10:00 h on Friday. Note
that I do not accept late essays or late edits. (For assignments 3 – 9 (edited by select
classmates), to be assigned an essay to edit, a student must have submitted an essay).
Your exit essay is due by noon on Monday 3 December 2018.
14. Essay Checklist (for essays 2 -9)
Body of essay:
__ your name on essay
__ story line or nutgraph (25 words)
double-spaced with margins
word count for essay (must be 490 – 510 words)
give value for Gunning Fog Index (GFI)
upload an electronic version of each essay (text only) to Turnitin.com
document is appropriately named and is in .doc or .docx format
did I follow the guidelines?
did I respond to editors’ comments on previous essay(s)?
Supplementary materials (for essays 2 – 10):
scientific names are correct (italicized); names of families, orders, capitalized but not
italicized
at least one (no more than three) citation(s) for each essay
citations must be correct (as per course outline)
9
no direct quotations
no footnotes
Please note that marks will be deducted for not following the directions (see pages 8 and 9
of the course outline for details).
There is no reason to use the passive voice in any of your writing in this course. None.
15. Use The Correct Word But Not The Passive Voice.
From page 53 in Strunk and White.
Nauseous. Nauseated. The first means “sickening to contemplate”; the second means “sick at
the stomach”. Do not, therefore, say “I feel nauseous,” unless you are sure that you have that
effect on others.
from page 40 in Strunk and White .
Among. Between. When more than two things or persons are involved, among is usually called
for: “When, money was divided among the four players.” When, however, more than two are
involved but each is considered individually, between is preferred: “agreement between the six
heirs.”
16. An excellent reference book
Clymo, R.S. 2014. Reporting research: a biologist’s guide to articles, talks, and posters.
Cambridge University Press.
Greene, A.E. 2013. Writing Science in plain English. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
17. Some Relevant Readings.
Baron, N. 2010. Escape from the ivory tower: a guide to making your science matter. Island
Press.
Brigham, R.M. 2010. Talking the talk: giving oral presentations about mammals for colleagues
and general audiences. Journal of Mammalogy, 91:285-292.
Chin, B.A. 2004. How to write a great research paper. John Wiley and Sons.
Clark, D. 1993. Is there a science to writing (particularly science writing) and, if not, why not?
The Leading Edge.
Dean, C. 2009. Am I making myself clear? A scientist’s guide to talking to the public. Harvard
University Press.
Gopen, G.D. and J.A. Swan. 1990. The science of scientific writing. American Scientist.
https://www.e-education.psu.edu/styleforstudents/c10_p1.html.
Gordon, K.E. 1993. The transitive vampire. Times Books.
Gwynne, N.M. 2012. Gwynne’s grammar. The ultimate introduction to grammar and the writing
of good English. Idler Books, London, England.
Hall, G.M. 2003. How to write a paper. Third Edition. BMJ Books
Nature Physics. 2007. Elements of style. Nature Physics, 4:581.
Olton, D. 1979. Elements of style in science writing.
Pechenik, Jan A. 2013. A short guide to writing about biology (8th edition). Tufts University:
Harper Collins College Publishers.
10
Pinker, S. 2014. The sense of style: the thinking person’s guide to writing in the 21st century.
Viking.
Rodriguez, A.C. 2012. Teaching peers to talk to peers. Bioessays, 34:918-920.
Ruvinsky, M. 2009. Practical grammar: a Canadian writer’s resource. Oxford
University Press, Second edition.
Shewchuk, J. 1997. Three sins of authors in computer science and math.
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jrs/sins.html
Strunk, W. Jr. and E.B. White.1979. The elements of style. Third Edition. Macmillan.
Sword, H. 2012. Stylish academic writing. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
18. Citing Published Works and Web Sites
There is no single accepted format for citing published works. Indeed, journals requiring
the same details of citation are the exception rather than the rule. In this course, you must use the
citation format identified below.
You must cite published material in essays and use the format shown below. The purpose
of citing published works is twofold. First is communication, making it easy for someone else to
find the work(s) that you cite. Second is giving credit where it is due (to the author(s) who
reported the information). In this course, we will follow one common scientific mode of citing
published works. This model makes it easy for anyone to find the cited material. Remember
there are many styles for citing published works, but please use the one described below for this
course.
****
In supplementary material at the end of the paper, present the scientific names as well as the
detailed citations in alphabetical order by surname of first author. Use the following format.
Journal papers must be cited as follows (in each situation, the author(s) and initials are provided
along with the date of publication, the title, the publisher (for books) or journal with volume
number and pagination):
Fenton, M.B. 2001. Bats, revised edition. Facts On File Inc., New York.
Frelich, L.E. and P.B. Reich. 1995. Neighborhood effects, disturbance, and succession in forests
of the western Great Lakes Region. Écoscience, 2:148-158.
Syme, D.M., M.B. Fenton, and J. Zigouris. 2001. Roosts and food supplies ameliorate the impact
of a bad summer on reproduction by the bat, Myotis lucifugus LeConte (Chiroptera :
Vespertilionidae). Écoscience, 8:18-25.
Tsoar, H. and J.T. Møller. 1986. The role of vegetation in the formation of linear sand dunes. Pp.
75-95. In W.G. Nickling (editor). Aeolian geomorphology. Allen and Unwin, Boston.
Note the different approaches used to cite single authors, two authors and more than two authors.
By the way, “et al.” should be written just like that. It is an abbreviation for the Latin, et alia
(literally, ‘and others’). Remember that you cannot change the order of authors on a publication
(for example to place the biologist you are writing about as the first author).
Chapters in books must be cited as follows:
Tsoar, H. and J.T. Møller. 1986. The role of vegetation in the formation of linear sand dunes. Pp.
75-95. In W.G. Nickling (editor). Aeolian geomorphology. Allen and Unwin, Boston.
11
Books must be cited thus:
Fenton, M.B. 2001. Bats, revised edition. Facts On File Inc., New York.
Internet sources (of general information) must be cited so that I can enter the cited information
and access the site.
Never use footnotes.
Never use direct quotations.
Be sure to write out surnames of authors and full name of journal.
19. Please Follow the Directions or ……..
Submitting Material On Time
Material must be submitted on time. In the absence of an appropriate written
explanation (e.g., from a medical doctor), late essays or other material will not be
accepted and will receive a grade of “0”.
Specific Details
Please keep the following guidelines in mind as you research and write Penalties
In the body of the essay
★1) provide a word count for your essay (yes, “a”, “the”, “and”, etc. count
as words). If your essay is outside the 490 to 510 words, you will -3 marks
lose 3 marks for not following the directions.
In the supplementary materials
★2) be sure to present common and scientific names. You must present -5 marks
all scientific names correctly (e.g., Myotis lucifugus). Failure
to follow this guideline will cost you 5 marks (out of 10). The
accepted abbreviation for a scientific name after you have presented
the whole name, is the first letter of the name of the genus capitalized
and followed by a period (e.g., M. lucifugus). Never write a scientific
name as “the Myotis lucifugus” – “the” is unnecessary.
★3) please cite the sources you use in preparing your essay. -5 marks
Provide the full bibliographic citations for them at the end of the
essay (as outlined in the models presented below).
★4) be sure to base your essays (2 – 9) on one or two papers published in scientific
Journals. No more than 3 citations per essay – 5 marks
★5) no direct quotations -10 marks
★6) no foot notes -10 marks
★7) be sure to upload your essay text to Turnitin.com.
If you do not… -10 marks
★8) calculate and show Gunning Fog Index.
If you do not … -5 marks
★9) be sure to name your submitted essays so that I can find them. The -10 marks
File should be called “yoursurnameinitialessayx”
20. Plagiarism: Students are required to submit (upload) their essays to Turnitin to minimize
12
the chances of copying the work of others. Turnitin provides a quantitative assessment of the
overlap between one piece of writing and another. In this course, zero overlap is the
standard. Be sure to upload only the text of your essays, not the additional materials which,
in the case of citations to the literature, would automatically appear as overlap.
Please consult UWO’s statement about academic offenses
(http://www.uwo.ca/univsec/handbook/appeals/scholastic_discipline_undergrad.pdf”
21. Support Services
(S.12-126)
The Web sites for Registrarial Services (http://www.registrar.uwo.ca), and the same for affiliated
university colleges when appropriate, and any appropriate Student Support Services (including
the services provided by the USC listed here: http://westernusc.ca/services/) and the Student
Development Services, should be provided for easy access.
All course outlines should contain the following statement: “Students who are in
emotional/mental distress should refer to Mental Health@Western
http://www.uwo.ca/uwocom/mentalhealth/ for a complete list of options about how to obtain
help.”
Retention of Electronic Version of Course Outlines (Syllabi)
At the same time that course outlines/syllabi are posted on the appropriate Web site, each
Department must forward an electronic version of items 1-5 of each course outline (syllabus) to
the Office of the Dean of the Faculty or College. By the fourth week after the start of term, the
Dean’s Office will forward all of the collected outlines to Registrarial Services, where they will
be maintained in electronic form in the faculty/staff extranet for a minimum of ten years after the
completion of the course. (Final retention periods and disposition will be determined by the
relevant records retention and disposition schedule approved by the President’s Advisory
Committee on University Records and Archives).

BIOL 2320 week 7 Nutritional Science Assignment Essay

BIOLOGY 2320
INTRO TO MICROBIOLOGY
Instructor/Professor: Dr. Stephanie Fischer Daugherty
Office: BEP 104 Office phone: 903-566-7013
Office Hours: MW 8-9, T Th by appointment (email me!)
Email: sdaugherty@uttyler.edu
Scheduled meeting times: Mondays & Wednesdays 2:40-4:00
Course Description:
This course will introduce non-Biology-major, health professions focused students to the
principles of Microbiology. Pre-requisites: Completion of or concurrent enrollment in
Intro to Chemistry is recommended, but not required.
Course Objectives:
1. Students will learn how genes control protein expression in living cells, and how
information flows from genes to mRNA to proteins.
2. Students will learn how enzymes function in the cell, and how enzymes control
metabolism and other traits in microbes
3. Students will learn the cellular characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and
will study viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, and parasitic
infections
4. Students will learn how antibiotics work to target specifically prokaryotes, and also
how enzymes in bacteria can confer resistance to antibiotics
5. Students will learn basics of the immune system, including the functions of fever,
antibodies, memory cells, and cytotoxic cells. Students will understand how
vaccines work to immunize individuals, and how herd immunity works to protect an
entire population.
6. Students will develop critical thinking skills, writing skills and discussion skills as they
do group discussions in class, and prepare essay answers using a scaffolded
learning system directed by the professor.
Course Textbook:
Recommended: Microbiology Fundamentals, A Clinical Approach by Marjorie Kelly
Cowan, 2nd edition.
Other editions will also work. Do NOT purchase additional “online learning” packages
from publisher.
There is an eTextbook version available from the publisher, you can try it out here:
http://www.coursesmart.com/IR/4169933/007736984X?__hdv=6.8
It is about $100 for 180 day rental.
Other Resources: online resources and links to research papers will be distributed via
Canvas, Jupiter, or dropbox.
Students are expected to attend all lectures and discussions. Points are awarded for
attendance and participation in mandatory lectures and group discussions.
Points may or may not be awarded for a make up quiz for an unexcused absence at the
professor’s discretion, with consideration that quizzes are open for one week and
therefore illness on the due date is not truly an issue about an absence. Medical
absences or hardship absences extending over more than 2 quizzes (even if not
consecutive) mean no further make ups past the due date will be offered, unless the
problem has been documented through the university Student Accessibility Resources
office. Policy for entire semester is, if student misses an assignment and wants the
opportunity to make it up, student must create a semester planner with all due dates
entered for the semester, and show it to the professor (it may be electronic or on paper).
Once professor verifies planner, assignment will be reopened. This offer is only valid for
one assignment.
If a student misses a class or exam due to a documented emergency, a make up
assignment or exam will be determined by consultation with the professor. A make up
exam, if scheduled, will occur within one week of the student’s return to class. If a
student misses a class or exam without contacting the professor ahead of the start time
of the exam, no make up assignment or exam need be offered.
Examinations & Coursework:
Four exams will be given, focusing on lecture material, each worth 17% of the
final grade
Quizzes will be given online, for a total of 16% of the final grade
Quizzes will be given online over reading assigned from outside sources,
including peer reviewed science articles, comprising 8% of the final grade
Group Discussions and Mandatory Lectures will be done collectively on specified
class days for 8% of the final grade.
If a student misses a class or exam due to a documented emergency, a make up
assignment or exam will be determined by consultation with the professor. It a student
misses a class or exam without contacting the professor, no make up assignment or
exam need be offered.
Rules for exams: exams are given online, but in class (you must attend class to take the
exam), on either a laptop or an ipad tablet. The device on which you take the exam is
the only device that may be in the student’s possession (please put phones or other
devices in your bag). Smartwatches & headphones are not allowed during exams. Hats
and hoods will be removed during exams. If these rules are not followed, student will be
given a zero for the exam.
Canvas, Dropbox, and other online tools:
Digital information exchanges for this course will take place on the university Canvas
system and on additional online tools. The first day of class will introduce you to these
tools and how to access them BIOL 2320 – Nutritional Science Assignment Essay

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