PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

Chapter 1 – The Evolution of Psychology

1.  Which two disciplines provided foundations for the field of psychology?

a.   physiology and theology

b.  physiology and sociology

c.   philosophy and physiology

d.  sociology and philosophy. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

2.  While the term “psychology” has existed since at least the early 1700s, when did psychology come to be considered

a  science?

a.   the 1750s

b.  the early 1800s

c.   the late 1800s

d.  the 1940s

3.  Which event marked the “birth” of psychology as a science?

a.   Wilhelm Wundt established the first laboratory for psychological research.

b.  Sigmund Freud first described the unconscious.

c.   Charles Darwin published the theory of natural selection.

d.  William James published the textbook Principles of Psychology.

4.  How did Wilhelm Wundt define psychology?

a.   the scientific study of the unconscious

b.  the scientific study of conscious experience

c.   the scientific study of behaviour

d.  the scientific study of the brain

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5.  Which of the following is NOT one of the major contributions of G. Stanley Hall?

a.   He established the first research laboratory for psychology in the United States.

b.  He was the first president of the American Psychological Association.

c.   He received the first Ph.D. in psychology in the United States.

d.  He established the first American psychological journal.

6.  Who was the psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the United States, founded the first American psychological journal, and was the first president of the American Psychological Association?PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   John Watson

b.  G. Stanley Hall

c.   William James

d.  Wilhelm Wundt

7.  Which school of psychology stated that the task of psychology is to analyze conscious experience into its basic elements?

a.   functionalism

b.  psychoanalysis

c.   behaviourism

d.  structuralism

8.  What did both Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener believe should be the focus of psychology?

a.   observable behaviour

b.  the function or purpose of consciousness

c.   unconscious determinants of behaviour

d.  basic elements of conscious experience

9.  Which technique would you be using if you take a sip of a soft drink and concentrate on what you are experiencing (cold, bubbly, sweet, etc.)?

a.   empiricism

b.  behaviourism

c.   introspection

d.  functionalism

10. What technique would you be using if, while watching a sunset, you stop and analyze your sensations, thoughts, and feelings?

a.   behaviourism

b.  introspection

c.   psychoanalysis

d.  functionalism. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

11. What did William James believe should be the focus of psychology?

a.   the function or purpose of consciousness

b.  basic elements of conscious experience

c.   observable behaviour

d.  unconscious determinants of behaviour

12. Which individual is known as the founder of functionalism?

a.   Sigmund Freud

b.  John Watson

c.   Wilhelm Wundt

d.  William James

13. Which school of psychology stated that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose?

a.   humanism

b.  functionalism

c.   behaviourism

d.  structuralism

14. Which individual provided a significant influence for William James’s perspective on psychology?

a.   Sigmund Freud

b.  Plato

c.   Aristotle

d.  Charles Darwin

15.  Which of the following schools of thought was most influenced by Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection?

a.   functionalism

b.  psychoanalysis

c.   behaviourism

d.  structuralism

16. Which school of psychology had a practical focus and was interested in how people adapted their behaviour to the demands of the world?PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   functionalism

b.  behaviourism

c.   psychoanalysis

d.  structuralism

17. Which individual is associated with the concept of “stream of consciousness”?

a.   William James

b.  Wilhelm Wundt

c.   Sigmund Freud

d.  John Watson

18. Two scientists from another planet, Poz and Zog, visit earth and are attempting to study our computers. Poz focuses on how the computer is used for work and for play, while Zog concentrates on the construction of each component of the computer. If you were to compare their approaches to the original schools of psychology, which of the following analogies is most accurate?

a.   Poz’s approach is similar to functionalism.

b.  Zog’s approach is similar to behaviourism.

c.   Zog’s approach is similar to psychoanalysis.

d.  Poz’s approach is similar to structuralism.

19. Which of the following most accurately describes the enduring influence of structuralism and functionalism on psychology today?

a.   Neither structuralism nor functionalism exerted a long-lasting influence on psychology.

b.  Both structuralism and functionalism exerted equivalent influences on psychology.

c.   Structuralism has exerted the greatest influence on psychology.

d.  Functionalism has exerted the greatest influence on psychology.

20. Who is known as the founder of behaviourism?

a.   John Watson

b.  Carl Rogers

c.   Wilhelm Wundt

d.  Sigmund Freud

21. How did John Watson define psychology?

a.   the scientific study of the brain

b.  the scientific study of the unconscious

c.   the scientific study of behaviour. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

d.  the scientific study of conscious experience

22. Which school of psychology made a clear distinction between observable behaviours and unobservable thoughts and feelings?

a.   functionalism

b.  behaviourism

c.   psychoanalysis

d.  structuralism

23. What did John Watson believe should be the focus of psychology?

a.   unconscious determinants of behaviour

b.  observable behaviour

c.   basic elements of conscious experience

d.  the function or purpose of consciousness

24. Which psychological approach is often referred to as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology?

a.   psychoanalytic theory

b.  structuralism

c.   evolutionary psychology

d.  behaviourism

25. If Dr. Meharry is a behaviourist, which of the following would he most likely say is the cause of a child’s disruptive behaviour in school?

a.   a combination of his genetic inheritance and his prior experiences

b.  his prior experiences

c.   his genetic inheritance

d.  a learning disability

26. Which of the following schools of psychology was most influential in increasing the use of animals in psychological research?

a.   structuralism

b.  humanism

c.   behaviourism

d.  animalism

27. Which of the following individuals would be most likely to focus on your thoughts, memories, and desires that are outside of conscious rational processes?

a.   B. F. Skinner

b.  Sigmund Freud

c.   John Watson

d.  Abraham Maslow. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

28.  What did Sigmund Freud believe should be the focus of studies of personality, motivation, and mental disorders?

a.   observable behaviour

b.  basic elements of conscious experience

c.   unconscious determinants of behaviour

d.  the function or purpose of consciousness

29. Even though you know it isn’t good for you, you just ate an entire large bag of chips. What would Sigmund Freud say is the cause of your behaviour?

a.   your unconscious mind

b.  your genetic influences

c.   your history of reinforcement and punishment

d.  your inability to think quickly

30.  Which of the following did NOT have a significant influence on the development of Sigmund Freud’s theory?

a.   the results of his experimental research

b.  his observation of the slips of the tongue people tend to make

c.   knowledge gained from his examination of his own anxieties, conflicts, and desires

d.  knowledge gained as a result of working with patients

31. What did Sigmund Freud believe prevented us from being totally in control of our own minds?

a.   the physiological functioning of our bodies

b.  environmental influences acting on us

c.   the unconscious

d.  introspection

32. Which of the following was NOT one of the reasons that psychoanalysis was controversial when it was first developed?

a.   its focus on the unconscious. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

b.  its lack of experimental research

c.   its emphasis on sexual issues

d.  its focus on abnormal behaviour

33. Which of the following statements is most accurate, regarding experimental psychology’s eventual reaction to psychoanalytic theory?

a.   Psychoanalytic theory was rejected by experimental psychologists.

b.  Psychoanalytic theory was accepted by experimental psychologists.

c.   Experimental psychologists began to reject behaviourism.

d.  Experimental psychologists tested psychoanalytic hypotheses.

34. Which school of psychology is associated with B.F. Skinner?

a.   humanism

b.  behaviourism

c.   psychoanalysis

d.  functionalism

35. Which of the following behaviourists was known for his concept of radical behaviourism?

a.   B. F. Skinner

b.  Ivan Pavlov

c.   Edward Thorndike

d.  John B. Watson

36. Which psychologist believed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes?

a.   Sigmund Freud

b.  F. Skinner

c.   William James

d.  Carl Rogers

37. According to B. F. Skinner, if you study “extra hard” for your first psychology midterm and earn an “A,” what would you do for your next psychology midterm?

a.   reduce your study time by approximately 50 percent. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

b.  continue to study “extra hard”

c.   devote all of your study time to your other courses

d.  reduce your study time by approximately 25 percent

38. If you wish to teach a child to pick up his toys, which of the following theorist’s principles and techniques would be most useful?

a.   Wilhelm Wundt

b.  William James

c.   B. F. Skinner

d.  Abraham Maslow

39.  Lisa taught her son to buckle his seatbelt quickly after getting into the car by allowing him to play one of his CDs on the car stereo only after he was buckled up. Which school of psychology would most endorse this method?

a.   cognitive psychology

b.  humanism

c.   biological psychology

d.  behaviourism

40. Which of the following statements would Skinner most likely disagree with?

a.   Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes.

b.  Organisms tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.

c.   All behaviour is governed by external consequences.

d.  Individuals have free will.
41. Upon reflecting upon your own behaviour, you come to the conclusion that you behave in a very predictable fashion. You feel that you don’t really choose your behaviours freely or consciously. Rather, you believe that your behaviour is controlled by what has happened to you in the past. Which of the following theorists would be most likely to agree with you?

a.   B. F. Skinner

b.  Edward Titchener

c.   Carl Rogers

d.  Sigmund Freud

42. Which school of psychology first emerged in the 1950s?PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   psychoanalysis

b.  behaviourism

c.   functionalism

d.  humanism

43. Which school of psychology believes people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth and that we have free will?

a.   psychoanalysis

b.  cognitive psychology

c.   humanism

d.  behaviourism

44. Which school of psychology would be least likely to compare humans to other animals?

a.   behaviourism

b.  functionalism

c.   humanism

d.  evolutionary psychology

45. Which of the following psychologists is considered a humanistic psychologist?

a.   Carl Rogers

b.  Wilhelm Wundt

c.   B. F. Skinner

d.  Sigmund Freud

46. Which of the following would both Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow agree with?

a.   People have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth.

b.  Human behaviour is entirely shaped by environmental events.

c.   People are controlled by genetic forces and do not tend to change across the life span.

d.  Human behaviour is largely determined by primitive sexual urges.

47. Imagine that you are a psychologist, and your major goal is to help people reach their potential. Which school of psychology do you endorse with that statement?

a.   structuralism

b.  humanism

c.   psychoanalysis

d.  behaviourism

48. Where was the first experimental psychology laboratory in Canada established?

a.   University of Toronto

b.  Dalhousie University

c.   University of Alberta

d.  McGill University. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

49. When did psychology become a popular subject in universities in Canada?

a.   1820s

b.  1850s

c.   1920s

d.  1950s

50. What is the focus of applied psychology?

a.   pure science research

b.  unique qualities of people

c.   practical problems

d.  mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge

51. Tracey is conducting research on children’s learning styles, and her research is used to help create new teaching activities in daycare centres. Which category would Tracey’s research fit into best?

a.   clinical psychology

b.  applied psychology

c.   behaviourism

d.  functionalism

52.  Which area of psychology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders?

a.   applied psychology

b.  clinical psychology

c.   medical psychology

d.  research psychology

53. Which of the following major historical events influenced the development of psychology as a profession?

a.   World War II

b.  the Cold War of the 1950s

c.   World War I

d.  the Great Depression of the 1930s

54. What did many psychologists begin to specialize in after World War II?

a.   clinical psychology

b.  experimental psychology

c.   industrial psychology

d.  research psychology

55. Which type of psychology best categorizes the research on bullying described in the Featured Study? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   behavioural psychology

b.  cognitive psychology

c.   experimental psychology

d.  applied psychology

56. Dr. LeBlanc became a psychologist in 1925. Which of the following types of psychologists is Dr. LeBlanc most likely to be?

a.   a counselling psychologist

b.  an experimental psychologist

c.   an applied psychologist

d.  a clinical psychologist

57. Which pair of terms reflects the observation that “psychology returned to its roots” in the latter part of the 20th century?

a.   cognitive perspective and humanism

b.  cognitive perspective and biological perspective

c.   biological perspective and humanism

d.  cultural perspective and biological perspective

58. Which psychological perspective emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, and reflected a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness?

a.   the mental perspective

b.  the philosophical perspective

c.   the biological perspective

d.  the cognitive perspective

59. If you were to ask a cognitive psychologist about her current research, which of the following is most likely to be the topic?

a.   unconscious emotional conflicts

b.  problem solving

c.   the influence of hormones on behaviour

d.  common attitudes across cultures

60. Which type of psychologist is most likely to study decision making, reasoning, problem solving, and language?

a.   an evolutionary psychologist

b.  a cognitive psychologist

c.   a behavioural psychologist

d.  a biological psychologist

61. Which psychological perspective emerged in the 1950s and 1960s and reflected a renewed interest in the study of the physiological bases of behaviour? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   the philosophical perspective

b.  the biological perspective

c.   the mental perspective

d.  the cognitive perspective

62. Which of the following psychological perspectives is most likely to focus on the interrelations among the mind, body, and behaviour?

a.   the biological perspective

b.  the cognitive perspective

c.   the behavioural perspective

d.  the evolutionary perspective

63.  According to the biological perspective, what must psychologists focus on in order to fully understand behaviour?

a.   the interrelations among the mind, body, and behaviour

b.  internal mental events

c.   the adaptive value of a behaviour

d.  the role of the unconscious

64.  Which of the following is partly responsible for Donald Hebb’s tremendous impact on the field of psychology?

a.   his discovery that the hemispheres of the brain are specialized for different tasks

b.  his collaborative work with Roger Sperry

c.   his focus on the study of children’s development

d.  his book The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory

65. Imagine that you are a graduate student in Montreal in the 1940s. You work under the supervision of a very influential researcher who published The Organization of Behavior, which provided an integrative approach to psychology. Which of the following are you likely to be researching?

a.   history and systems of psychology

b.  child development

c.   brain mechanisms of behaviour

d.  memory and problem solving

66. Which of the following represents a major focus of psychology in both the 19th century and now?

a.   the role of unconscious conflicts

b.  a focus on biological bases for behaviour

c.   identifying the smallest units of conscious experience

d.  striving for self-actualization

67. Which of the following is true of most research in psychology?

a.   The participants all experience the same experimental manipulation.

b.  The research focuses on similarities among age groups.

c.   The participants all come from the same cultural background.

d.  The research focuses on differences between nations.

68. Which of the following has become the most recent focus of attention for psychologists? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   unconscious mechanisms

b.  intelligence

c.   emotions

d.  culture

69. Which of the following is a psychologist who focuses attention on cultural diversity least likely to do?

a.   document differences among varying cultures

b.  test the generality of earlier findings to other cultures

c.   document similarities among varying cultures

d.  identify deficiencies in other cultures

70. Based on the results of the Featured Study on bullying in Canadian schoolyards, which of the following situations is most typical of bullying?

a.   A student is bullied in isolation by someone with a reputation for aggression.

b.  A group of students is bullied by a single individual.

c.   A group of students is bullied by a much older group of students.

d.  A student is bullied by someone, while other peers either take part or observe.

71. What do evolutionary psychologists focus on when they study behavioural processes?

a.   adaptive value of the behaviour

b.  influence on intelligence

c.   hormonal substrate

d.  cognitive correlates

72.   Which area of psychology is consistent with the following hypothesis: “We learn quickly about dangerous situations because we have inherited traits that keep us safe and increase the likelihood that we will survive to reproduce.”

a.   humanism

b.  cultural psychology

c.   biological psychology

d.  evolutionary psychology. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

73. Dr Tanaka hypothesizes that men and women have subtle differences in cognition because historically men and women have had different roles and challenges. This led to different traits and abilities being adaptive for men and women. What type of psychologist is Dr. Tanaka?

a.   a behaviourist

b.  a cognitive psychologist

c.   a humanist

d.  an evolutionary psychologist

74.  Terry is interested in doing research on creativity. She really wants to be able to help people develop their creativity, so that they can improve their own lives. Which type of psychology is Terry interested in?

a.   educational psychology

b.  positive psychology

c.   functional psychology

d.  clinical psychology

75. In promoting positive psychology, what did Seligman suggest had been the historical focus of the field of psychology?

a.   pathology, weakness, and damage

b.  genetic and physiological influences

c.   animal, child, and disordered behaviour

d.  behaviourism and psychoanalysis
76. In addition to being a science, what is the other aspect of the field of psychology, according to your textbook’s definition?

a.   career

b.  profession

c.   philosophy

d.  art

77. Which of the following is NOT included in your textbook’s definition of psychology?

a.   Psychology is a profession that solves practical problems.

b.  Psychology is a science. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

c.   Psychology studies behaviour including physiological and cognitive processes.

d.  Psychology primarily studies the unconscious mind.

78. Approximately what percentage of psychologists work in colleges and universities?

a.   10 percent

b.  30 percent

c.   50 percent

d.  70 percent

79. Which of the following is NOT a major area of specialization in research psychology?

a.   industrial/organizational psychology

b.  social psychology

c.   personality psychology

d.  psychometrics

80. What are currently the two largest areas of specialization in research-oriented psychology?

a.   clinical and counselling psychology

b.  developmental and clinical psychology

c.   social and counselling psychology

d.  developmental and social psychology
81. Which type of psychologist is concerned with changes in behaviour throughout the life span?

a.   a social psychologist

b.  a developmental psychologist

c.   a personality psychologist

d.  a cognitive psychologist

82. A newspaper article reported a study by a psychologist in which the attitudes of men and women toward traditional sex roles were studied. Which type of psychologist most likely conducted the study?

a.   a developmental psychologist

b.  a cognitive psychologist

c.   a social psychologist

d.  a counselling psychologist

83. Which area of research specialization in psychology studies many of the traditional topics in psychology (such as sensation, learning, and motivation)? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   psychometrics

b.  experimental psychology

c.   cognitive psychology

d.  educational psychology

84. Jane’s thyroid gland has become inactive, and, as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. Which branch of psychology would include studies on these sorts of effects?

a.   medical psychology

b.  physiological psychology

c.   experimental psychology

d.  clinical psychology

85. Which of the following would be most interesting to a psychologist who specializes in psychometrics?

a.   the development of techniques to monitor the functioning of the nervous system

b.  explaining development across the life span

c.   the development of psychological tests to measure intelligence or personality traits

d.  conducting psychotherapy in a clinical setting

86. Which of the following is NOT a major area of specialization of professional psychology?

a.   industrial and organizational psychology

b.  counselling psychology

c.   school psychology

d.  personality psychology

87. What is the largest specialization in professional psychology?

a.   counselling psychology

b.  industrial/organizational psychology

c.   clinical psychology

d.  developmental psychology

88. Which specialization in applied psychology is primarily involved in the treatment of less severe problems of everyday life?

a.   social psychology

b.  counselling psychology

c.   cognitive psychology

d.  clinical psychology

89. Which of the following areas of specialization in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   school psychology

b.  experimental psychology

c.   industrial/organizational psychology

d.  educational psychology

90. Which psychologists work in schools and primarily help individual children having difficulties in school, or aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems?

a.   educational psychologists

b.  counselling psychologists

c.   school psychologists

d.  social psychologists
91. As the result of a breakdown in communication, morale is low among employees in a local factory. Which type of psychologist would be most likely to be helpful in restoring communication and improving morale?

a.   a clinical psychologist

b.  a social psychologist

c.   an educational psychologist

d.  an industrial/organizational psychologist

92. Which of the following professionals is a medical doctor?

a.   a physiological psychologist

b.  a clinical psychologist

c.   a psychiatrist

d.  a counselling psychologist

93. Which of the following professionals could provide a prescription for antidepressant medication?

a.   a physiological psychologist

b.  a clinical psychologist

c.   a psychiatrist

d.  a counselling psychologist

94. Your textbook describes seven unifying themes that provide continuity throughout psychology. What are the two primary divisions of those themes?

a.   psychology as a way of studying behaviour; the things that influence behaviour

b.  psychology as a science; psychology utilizes theories

c.   psychology as a science; psychology as a profession

d.  psychology studies behaviour; people are subjective

95. Consider your textbook’s unifying theme that “psychology is empirical.” What does this theme imply that psychologists base their conclusions on? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   logical reasoning

b.  direct observations

c.   speculation

d.  common sense
96. Which of the following premises means that knowledge should be acquired through observation?

a.   philosophy

b.  empiricism

c.   subjectivity

d.  introspection

97. Which of your text’s unifying themes is emphasized by John Watson’s proposal that psychology should study only observable behaviours and not consciousness?

a.   Behaviour is influenced by multiple causes.

b.  Psychology should use theories.

c.   Psychology should be empirical.

d.  People’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

98. What is a theory?

a.   the premise that knowledge should be acquired through logical reasoning

b.  a statement of fact that describes a set of observations

c.   the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation

d.  a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations

99. What does a scientist use to explain a set of observations?

a.   introspection

b.  a theory

c.   common sense

d.  empiricism

100.  Which of the following is implied by your textbook’s unifying theme that “psychology is theoretically diverse”?

a.   Psychology has not, as yet, focused on empirical observations.

b.  Psychology values all opinions, and treats different views as equally valid.

c.   Psychology can only be described as a social science, rather than a pure science.

d.  There are often several ways to interpret a set of observations.PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

101. While Sigmund Freud might explain an individual’s depression by focusing on the person’s unconscious thoughts, a physiological psychologist might focus instead on a chemical imbalance in the brain. Which of your textbook’s unifying themes is illustrated by this example?

a.   Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

b.  Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

c.   Psychology is empirical.

d.  Psychology is theoretically diverse.

102. Which of the following is one of your text’s unifying themes related to psychology as a field of study?

a.   Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

b.  Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

c.   Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.

d.  People’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

103. Which of the following is NOT one of the text’s unifying themes related to psychology as a field of study?

a.   Psychology is empirical.

b.  Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

c.   Psychology is theoretically diverse.

d.  Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

104. Which of the following is implied by your text’s unifying theme that “psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context”?

a.   Knowledge should be acquired through observation.

b.  Dense interconnections exist between what happens in psychology and in society at large.

c.   Shared customs, beliefs, and values are transmitted socially across generations.

d.  There are often several ways to interpret a set of observations.

105.  Which of the following best describes the unifying theme that “psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context”?

a.   Social trends and values have an impact on personal behaviour.

b.  Social trends and values have an impact on psychology.

c.   Psychology and society both influence each other.

d.  Psychological research and theories have an impact on society.

106. During the last few decades, people have become more aware of the sexual abuse of children by adults, and psychologists have devoted more research attention to the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. These observations best reflect which unifying theme in psychology?

a.   People’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

b.  Psychology is theoretically diverse.

c.   Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.

d.  Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

107. Taken as a whole, your text’s review of the early schools of psychology best reflects which one unifying theme in psychology?

a.   Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage.

b.  Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

c.   Psychology is theoretically diverse.

d.  People’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

108. Which of the following is one of your text’s unifying themes related to the subject matter of psychology?

a.   Psychology is empirical.

b.  Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

c.   Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

d.  Psychology is theoretically diverse.

109.  Which of the following is NOT one of your text’s unifying themes related to the subject matter of psychology?

a.   Psychology is theoretically consistent.

b.  Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

c.   Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.

d.  People’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

110. Which of the following reflects psychology’s view of behaviour?

a.   It has an objective cause.

b.  It has a single cause.

c.   It has subjective causes.

d.  It has multiple causes.

111.   Your text’s two unifying themes of “our behaviour is shaped by our cultural heritage” and “heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour” both describe more specialized statements of which other theme?

a.   Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

b.  Psychology is theoretically diverse.

c.   People’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

d.  Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.

112.  Which of the following includes the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of

a  community that are transmitted socially across generations?

a.   cultural heritage

b.  legal heritage

c.   religious heritage

d.  sociohistorical heritage

113. If you normally use a knife, fork, and spoon to eat dinner, what does that reflect? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   adaptation

b.  subjective thoughts concerning proper behaviour

c.   objective thoughts concerning proper behaviour

d.  cultural heritage

114. Which of the following phrases reflects your textbook’s unifying theme of “heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour”?

a.   man versus nature

b.  nature versus nurture

c.   parent versus child

d.  biology versus psychology

115. When John Watson said, “Give me a dozen healthy infants …,” what was he arguing that behaviour is strongly influenced by?

a.   environmental factors

b.  heredity factors

c.   cultural factors

d.  subjective factors

116. Which of your textbook’s unifying themes is reflected in the fact that people sometimes see what they either “want to see” or “expect to see”?

a.   Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

b.  People’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

c.   Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage.

d.  People’s experience of the world is empirical.

117. The unifying theme “people’s experience of the world is highly subjective” most directly impacts which other unifying theme?

a.   Psychology is empirical.

b.  Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

c.   Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage.

d.  Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.

118. Which of the following is NOT good advice for developing sound study habits?

a.   Find a place to study where you can concentrate.

b.  Set up a schedule for studying.

c.   Reward yourself for studying.

d.  Avoid taking study breaks while studying.

119. How would you describe cramming for an exam as a study strategy for most students?

a.   ineffective

b.  effective

c.   beneficial

d.  time efficient

120. Which of the following is the best advice when faced with a major assignment such as a term paper? PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   Set aside a large block of time (e.g., an entire weekend) to devote to the assignment.

b.  Break the assignment down into smaller components.

c.   Start the assignment with a clear idea of your conclusion in mind.

d.  Postpone beginning the assignment until shortly before the due date in order to incorporate information from the instructor’s lectures into the project.

121. What is the SQ3R study system designed to promote?

a.   effective writing of themes and essays

b.  effective reading of course material

c.   effective test-taking strategies

d.  effective note taking of course lectures

122. What is the correct order of the steps in the SQ3R method?

a.   survey, question, read, review, recite

b.  summarize, question, read, recite, review

c.   survey, question, read, recite, review

d.  summarize, question, read, review, recite

123. Which type of student is the SQ3R method most helpful for?

a.   those with medium to high reading ability

b.  those with low to medium reading ability

c.   those with extremely low reading ability

d.  those with extremely high reading ability

124. Based on empirical studies, which of the following students would you expect to have the poorest attendance during the semester?

a.   Tom, who earned an A?0?

b.  Sue, who earned a B

c.   Ashley, who earned a C+

d.  Steve, who earned a D?0?

125. Which of the following is good advice for getting more out of class lectures?PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   Concentrate on writing down the definitions of terms.

b.  Read along in the text as the instructor is lecturing.

c.   Read the relevant pages in the text before the lecture.

d.  Avoid interrupting the instructor by asking questions.

126. Which of the following is NOT good advice for improving your test-taking ability?

a.   Don’t waste too much time pondering difficult­to­answer questions.

b.  Review the test if you have time left after completing the test.

c.   Check for hidden complexities in simple-looking questions.

d.  Make sure you use your time efficiently and have enough time to complete the test.

127. Which of the following is good advice for taking multiple-choice exams?

a.   Remember that options that use broad generalizations such as “always, never, and must” tend to be correct.

b.  Remember to continue to read all options even after you find your anticipated answer.

c.   Remember that if “all of the above” is an option, it must be correct.

d.  Remember that options that use qualified statements such as “often, sometimes, and may” tend to be incorrect.

128. Which questions should you answer first on an essay test?

a.   the ones that are worth the most points

b.  the ones that are listed first on the exam

c.   the ones that cover material that was most recently discussed in class

d.  the ones that you know best

129. Which of the following is NOT part of critical thinking?

a.   working systematically toward a desired goal

b.  originally believing that the stated position on a topic is incorrect

c.   generating multiple solutions to problems

d.  using principles of likelihood when dealing with probabilistic events

130. Which of the following seems to be true about the skills and attitudes involved in critical thinking?

a.   They naturally develop during early adulthood.

b.  They develop only in individuals trained in scientific disciplines.

c.   They need to be specifically taught to individuals.

d.  They naturally develop during adolescence.

131.  Which of the following is consistent with your textbook’s suggestions for improving academic performance by improving your reading, getting more out of lectures, and improving test-taking strategies?PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

a.   subjective thinking skills

b.  accepted thinking skills

c.   critical thinking skills

d.  objective thinking skills

132.  Which of the following observations weakens the evolutionary explanation of gender differences in spatial abilities?

a.   There frequently was a sex-based division of labour in ancient hunting and gathering societies.

b.  Males are encouraged to engage in activities that provide more practice with spatial tasks.

c.   Males frequently perform slightly better than females on tasks involving mental rotation of images and navigation in space.

d.  Females perform slightly better than males on tasks involving memory for locations.

133. Which of the following would you find if you were to compare and contrast the six contemporary theoretical perspectives in psychology described in your text?

a.   Psychoanalytic theory is the only approach that examines the role of thoughts and feelings.

b.  The earlier approaches (pre-1950s) are very similar to one another, whereas the later approaches are dramatically different from one another.

c.   The structuralist approach permeates all contemporary theoretical perspectives.

d.  The psychoanalytic, humanistic, and cognitive perspectives are very different from the others with regard to focus on the human species.

134. When Alex trains raccoons to respond to symbols, with which of the following psychologists are his methods most consistent?

a.   Brenda Milner

b.  Donald Hebb

c.   B. F. Skinner

d.  William James

135. Which type of psychologist would be LEAST interested in Alex’s research?

a.   a cognitive psychologist. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

b.  a humanist

c.   a functionalist

d.  a behaviourist
136. Which of the following types of psychologists would be MOST interested in Alex’s research?

a.   a clinical psychologist

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b.  a structuralist

c.   an evolutionary psychologist

d.  a humanist

137. Which of your textbook’s themes is illustrated when Alex collects data in order to evaluate his ideas?

a.   Psychology is theoretically diverse.

b.  Psychology is empirical.

c.   Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

d.  Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.

138. When Alex trains his students, which skill is he emphasizing?

a.   critical thinking

b.  structuralism

c.   positive psychology

d.  statistical training. PSYC 1001: The Evolution Of Psychology Essay

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