I will attach the question. now this is the review sheet Review Questions for Exam #2
What are manifest and latent functions? Provide an example of each? According to lecture and the readings, how are SUV’s marketed to buyers? What latent functions are played on to sell the product?
Manifest Function are the consequences that people observe or expect. It is explicitly stated and understood by the participants in the relevant action
Ex: engagement ring
Latent Function are those that are neither recognized nor intended. A latent function of a behavior is not explicitly stated, recognized, or intended by the people involved
Ex: using a newspaper as a fly swatterCars are marketed to buyers based on how they look and how they make you feel (latent function) or on how they relate to transportation (manifest function).
SUV’s are market to buyers by their commercials saying that these vehicles can “set you free” allow you to relax and feel safe
What is the McDonaldization of society?
Maximum efficiency in increasingly numerous and diverse social settings.
• Maximum efficiency • Calculability – Counting, and quantifying. (Fast) • Predictability • Control through technology substituted for humans • Impersonal, alienating – Doesn’t deal well with outliers
What are the key differences between Jihad and McWorld? What are the similarities?
Tribal fragmentation along parochial ethic and religious lines
Parochial (narrow Scoped)
Jihad splits world into religious and ethnic blocks
Jihad terrorist attacks
New World Order: Bloody, violent, and fragmented
Universalizing markets that are generic, uniform and eliminate local tradition
Also makes you feel like you’re in control of “nature”
New World Order: soulless, uniform, and homogenizing
Both take advantage of New World Order
Both make the boundaries increasingly obsolete
4. What types of events do news media focus on? How does this contribute to misdirecting our fears from more objective dangers?
Crimes -Violent, those where the innocent is the victim and the perpetrator is random. Ones that are close to those of Urban Legends.
Ones that could cover up for them not having any stories.
Contributes to misdirection’s by people wanting to spend more money on putting people in jail, which has been shown to not work at all. They want this rather than spending money on insurance, health insurance, Higher education.
This contributes because some of the violent crimes are sometimes caused the ignoring of objective dangers such as poverty and cancer.
People who are below the poverty line have been shown to abuse children and abuse drugs
Also contributes by not having people worry about little things that add up to cause the big things.
What substitutes for statistics in the portrayal of social problems? How does this contribute to the culture of fear?
It contributes by making people think that there kids will be the next ones addicted to drugs.
What is the individualization of social problems?
Blaming a specific group as the cause of one of our problems.
News media often argue that “everyone is at risk” of a particular social problem. How does this distort reality and hinder solutions to social problems?
When you say “everyone is at risk” it makes people freak out about the one little things rather than looking at the wide scope of things.
It distorts reality because most generally not “everyone is at risk”, just a certain group of people.
This hinders solutions because it sometimes results in an ineffective approach to dealing w/ crime or detracting attention from the critical sites of violence
How does the press conference on crack described in lecture, fit arguments in the Culture of Fear?
It fits arguments because many presidents blamed crack or drugs as a huge problem just to get Americans to ignore real problems like poverty or sicknesses.
How does the movie American History X demonstrate the social learning of deviance?
The movie demonstrates this because Danny, Derek’s little brother, tries to follow Derek in his path of being a Neo-Nazi and becomes a racist and threatens many people of different races along the way. Along with many of his Following lower ranked Neo-Nazis bragging about what they do while he’s in prison.
How does the movie American History X illustrate the value of variety in social networks?
It illustrates this because Derek learns this in prison because of his black friend. Danny is killed at the end of the movie by a black guy he made fun of before. Basically if you shut off yourself to Variety you set yourself up for destruction.
Inhumanity is a function of Social Distance
Leads to “Foot in the Door Problem”
Causes a Diffusion of Responsibility
What are the main arguments of the articles “Criminal Justice through the Looking Glass?”and “Becoming a Marijuana User?”
Becoming a Marijuana User
Marijuana is used for pleasure and “recreation” only when he goes through a process of learning to conceive as an “object” to use it this way
Noone becomes a user w/o
learning to smoke the drug in a way that will produce a high
learning to recognize the effects and connect them w/ the drug
Learning to enjoy the sensations
Criminal Justice through the Looking Glass
CJS maintains crime and manages crime rather than eliminate or significantly reduce it.
Another example of culture of fear and individualism of social problems
Latent Functions is to reproduce or recreate the social order
Criminal justice system tends to disrupt social disorder.
Rich stealing from Rich is not treated as significantly as crime as other people stealing from rich.
Criminal Justice is part of the crime problem, focuses primarily on dangerous people and classes of people
War on Drugs is not designed to end druge use
Preventing Crime would work best in one designed for REHAB
12. What is social marking? How is the social marking process asymmetrical? What is mental coloring? How is it related to social marking?
Is when someone does something that is not normal and is “marked” by society on that act they committed that was not normal.
how people in the public or your peers view you
Its asymmetrical classification process that accents one side of a contrast as unnatural or not normal, thereby saying that the unmarked side is natural or normal
Basically it says that even though people are “equal” they are looked at as “unequal”
Or if you walk into a porno store there are heterosexual stuff all over and there’s only a section for homosexuals
intensifies the rigid contrast by figuratively painting all members of the marked category under a single stereotypical image.
One Drop-rule=where if they have one tiny thing in common with the marked group you think they’re apart of it
Ocean-rule= where if you see someone you don’t automatically think there a part of the marked group unless they display a a lot of the attributes of the marked group
These two are related because is a whole bunch of people are “marked” by the same social reasoning they become “Mentally Colored” or grouped together and viewed the same as the rest of the group
Provide an example of the one-time rule and the Maximum-capacity rule as they apply to “deviant” identity.
One-Time Rule: If someone commits murder, sometimes because of that One Time occurrence they are forever looked at as a murder
Maximum-Capacity Rule: If someone Smokes cigarettes you won’t look at them as a smoker if they only do it once, they must repeatedly do it for a long period of time
Why did many of Milgram’s subjects go all the way to administering 450 volt shocks to their learners?
Inhumanity as a function of distance
When people don’t know someone they tend to not care as much what happens
Foot in the Door Problem (Logic of Sequential Action)
Slowly acclimate people to the next step
Diffusion of responsibility
Victim could be heard but not seen
People can do bad things if the social situation is right.
How did modernity contribute to the holocaust? How does modern society help to facilitate evil works among “good” people.
It contributed because that’s what Hitler did he implemented “modernity” onto thousands of people. By developing “circuits” on which were influenced to believe what they were doing was good.
It helps facilitate evil by causing an obsession with ????????
16. How do lifestylers, commuters and integrators differ from one another? What do each of the three social types value with respect to their identity?
Live In Conclavesor groups
Have them and police them
All or mostly the same social type
Defines who they are and how one lives
High in Density, Dominance, and Duration
Loud and Proud
Travel to be in the conclaves or group
Code-Switch to match setting
Separate their network from the one they commute to
“Part-time” identity job
In unmarked space is “conspicuously generic”
Play up the “generic” characteristic to overshadow their commuting identity
Is High in Density but short in Duration
100% gay 15% of the time
Live in “generic” space
Challenge the idea of them
Mixed social network
Identity balance and multi-dimensionality
Low in Density but Long Duration
15% gay 100% of the time
17. What is impression management? How does it apply to the Girlhunt?
is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction
Impression Management applies to Girl Hunting because they are attempting to influence the perceptions of others about themselves. Making them look more “masculine”
Also it helps make your other friends think that you’re more manly
Men perform ritualistic behaviors before going out to help them prepare for the “Girl Hunt” by helping each other raise their confidence.
The wingman serves multiple purposes: he provides validation of a leading man’s trustworthiness, eases the interaction between a single male friend and a larger group of women, serves as a source of distraction for the friend or friends of a more desirable target of affection, can be called on to confirm the wild (and frequently misleading) claims of his partner, and, perhaps most important, helps motivate his friends by building up their confidence.
What is the girlhunt? What is its primary purpose?
Girl Hunt is the performance of adolescent masculinity
It’s also considered a ritualistic and performative behavior that men do to display their “manliness”
Boost confidence in one’s performance of masculinity and heterosexual power, and assist in the performance of masculinity in the presence of women
a practice whereby adolescent heterosexual men aggressively seek out female sexual partners in nightclubs, bars, and other public arenas of commercialized entertainment.
It’s primary purpose is the performance of normative masculinity
Be able to identify examples of lifestylers, commuters and integrators across a variety of identity contexts.
LOOK OVER HANDOUT AND RELATE TO OTHER THINGS
20. What is an example of a duration dispute? A density dispute?
High-Duration gay visibility is critical to overall cultural visibility and acceptance and to a “lifestyler” the Commuter who resists high duration is part of the problem for his invisibility perpetuates the oppression of gays.
Lifestylers and Integrators VS Commuters
High Density gays are committed to the distinctiveness of one’s identity and thus emphasize difference from other identities.
Low Density gays emphasize that his gayness is just one small piece of himself and that absent the slight flavoring of the attribute, he is no different from anyone else.
Lifestylers and Commuters VS Integrators
How do commuters and integrators differ?
Travel to be in the conclaves to be surrounded by the people of the same social identity.
Only refer to themselves as part of the social identity when they are in that conclave
Separate themselves from their social identity and suburban networks
Have a mobile identity
Others who don’t are inflexible and limited
Live in a “generic” space
Only refer to themselves as having “part” of the social identity their talking about
Have a mixed social network
Value Identity Balance and multi dimensionality
And others are excessive.
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