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Data Collection, Analysis, Evaluation, Dissemination of Results, and Conclusion

Pain Management Essay

Data Collection

The study will use qualitative interviews to capture the required data. The interviews will be semi-structured. The researchers will administer the interviews to a sample of patients in three palliative care centers. The sample size will depend on the data saturation point. The interview will have 15 baseline questions that assess the patient’s current healthcare needs, pain interventions and quality of life. The baseline questions will take a maximum of 60 minutes. Afterward, the researcher will ask follow-up questions for between 20 and 30 minutes to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of the pain interventions on the patient’s quality of life. The researchers will record the participants’ responses in interview notes and audio recordings.

The study will use the cross-sectional data collection points. Although the participants will provide the data at different moments, each participant will complete the interview in one session (Suresh, 2014). The entire study will take a maximum of six weeks. A saturation grid will help to determine the data saturation. The researchers will list the key themes of the study on the vertical axis and the participants’ responses on the horizontal axis. The lack of new data as the interviews continues will indicate the occurrence of data saturation (Fusch & Ness, 2015). The two methods that the researchers will use to enhance data quality are peer debriefing and member checking. Peer debriefing will involve regular meetings with colleagues who have no direct involvement in the study. The researchers will engage the colleagues to assess the study’s flaws and blind spots. On the other hand, member checking will involve asking the participants to review the collected data and respond to the emerging concepts and themes.


The study will use the modified Stevick-Colaizzi phenomenological data analysis approach. This method has several sequential steps. The first step is to develop a general sense of the participants’ experiences by reading and listening to the interview recordings. The second step is to identify the significant statements relating to the phenomenon and derive meanings from those statements. The third step is to group the meanings into themes and check their consistency with the participants’ stories and responses. The fourth step is to develop a theoretical model explaining the phenomenon (Hays & Singh, 2011). The fifth step is the provision of a structural description of the respondents’ experiences. Finally, the researchers will combine the theoretical and structural descriptions to create the essence of the experience(s) of interest.

Coding and themes will be integral aspects of the EBP proposal. The codes will capture the attributes of the significant statements relating to the phenomenon of concern. Coding is crucial to reducing the participants’ responses and aligning them with the guiding questions. This alignment allows the development of invariant units of analysis. The codes provide a basis for developing the relevant themes. Grouping the key statements into themes is crucial to the analysis and description of the phenomenon (Guest, MacQueen & Namey, 2011). Themes capture the recurring experiences and meanings to allow an objective description of the phenomenon. Triangulation constitutes one of the techniques that the researcher can use to enhance the internal validity of a study. It involves the use of different sources of data to ascertain the relevant facts. Triangulation is relevant to the phenomenological research design because it provides a different approach for verifying the qualitative interviews. The study can apply both data and investigator triangulation to ensure the best results.


The assessment of the outcomes of the EBP proposal will focus on the outcomes for the key stakeholders and the nursing practice area. First, the project should lead to improved quality of life for the terminally ill patients. The evaluation will use a quality of life scale that assesses the three types of comfort and the four contexts in which they occur. The patients who receive the integrated care should demonstrate high levels of comfort and transcendence in all the contexts. Secondly, the project should lead to improved psychological and emotional wellbeing for patients’ families. Witnessing a family member in constant pain has adverse psychological and emotional effects. Delivering comfort and transcendence for the patient leads to improved wellbeing for his or her family. Thirdly, the project should lead to improved practice for the palliative care providers. Patients’ unresponsiveness to the usual pharmacological interventions can cause anxiety, stress, depression and burnout for the provider. These outcomes adversely affect the provider’s performance and practice.

The two key micro-level improvements to the nursing practice that should result following the implementation of the EBP project are the improved management of obstinate pain in the terminally ill patients and the decreased stress, frustration and burnout among the palliative care providers. First, many terminally ill patients die with pain because they are unresponsive to the applied pharmacological interventions. Integrating the CAM modalities with the usual multimodal analgesia improves the outcome for the patients with unrelieved pain. Secondly, anxiety and stress among the providers impede their ability to deliver objective and quality care, which leads to increased patient dissatisfaction.

Dissemination of Results

The researchers will use several methods to disseminate the results of the implementation of the EBP proposal. First, the researchers will communicate the results to professionals in the clinical practice and research through print and electronic journal articles. The published reports will provide in-depth details of the research findings (Burns, Gray, & Grove, 2014). The stakeholders without direct access to the print reports will download the electronic journal articles online from the accessible databases. Secondly, the researchers will summarize the project’s results into PowerPoint and make verbal presentations in meetings with the stakeholders including the members of the community at the local, state and national levels. They will present the summary of the findings through talks and posters. The facility members will share the project’s results via the organization’s website and dedicated file-sharing platforms such as Dropbox and Google Drive.


The phenomenological study to investigate the impact of integrated pain management on terminally ill patients will use in-depth qualitative interviews with cross-sectional data collection points. The researchers will conduct the research in a duration not exceeding 6 weeks. They will use interview notes and audio recordings to capture the participants’ responses. The study will use the modified Stevick-Colaizzi phenomenological data analysis approach. The researchers will use a combination of published print and electronic reports and presentations to disseminate the research results. The implementation of the EBP project should lead to improved practice for the providers, quality of life for patients and the psychological and emotional wellbeing of the patients’ families. It should influence the shift away from the overreliance on multimodal analgesia for pain management to the integration of CAM modalities with pharmacological interventions.

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