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A child start to recognize when they have a full bladder or rectum at around one year. However, the child will be ready for toilet training as from eighteen months while some may not be interested until they are three years.
Rectum and Anus
The rectum and the anus for the last part of the gastrointestinal system and are divided by the sphincter muscles that determine when stool is released (Ball et al., 2014).
Control of external anal sphincter
The control of the anal sphincter starts at two months and is gradually achieved by the fifteenth month.
Difference between External and Internal hemorrhoids
While internal hemorrhoids are obvious and often manifesting as bulges around the anus which are either itchy, swollen and even painful, internal hemorrhoids are located within the rectum, often painless unless blood vessels swell (Ball et al., 2014).
Examining a 70-year-old man
This question is relevant as exercise in early years as physical activity help to build strong muscles and bones as it improves the storage of calcium. Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to musculoskeletal disorders.
Leg Length Discrepancy
In this case, where there is a slight leg length discrepancy, I would advise the woman to do a shoe lift to level the hip of the child.
Pin worm is the most common cause of the itchy anus in the three year old boy. The itching becomes worse at night as the pin worms move to the anus to lay eggs (Ball et al., 2014).
Assessing a fourth-degree perennial laceration
A fourth degree laceration goes through the anal sphincter and the anal canal. The tear may affect the anal sphincter and cause loss of function.
Position for rectal examination
For an older person, the left lateral decubitus position where the patient’s knees are pulled up is the most appropriate and modest.
Clue to the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease
Lack of ganglia cells is the main clue to the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease
Persistent, pencil-like stools
Persistence pencil thin stool indicate the presence of colorectal polyps or cancer. The cancer or polyp decreases the colon’s diameter hence making the stool thin (Ball et al., 2014).
Formula-fed babies often have stool that is darker and firmer than that of breastfed babies.
Old age 50 years and above
Old age 65 years and above
Family history of colon cancer
Family history of prostate cancer
Dietary Habits of low fibre diet
Risk factors for colorectal cancer
Old age, African-American race, inflammatory intestinal conditions, personal history of polyps or colorectal cancer, inheritance, low fibre and high fat diet, sedentary lifestyle, overweight, smoking, alcoholism, and radiation therapy are among the risk factors for colorectal cancer (Ball et al., 2014).
Risk factors for prostate cancer
A family history of prostate cancer, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, African-American race, old age, high calcium intake and tall height are the risk factors for prostate cancer (Ball et al., 2014).
Frequent urination, difficulty starting urination, weak urine stream, dribbling at the end of urination, inability to completely empty the bladder and urinary hesitancy are the symptoms of BPH (Ball et al., 2014).
- Rectal examination should include visually inspecting the perennial skin, assessing the neuromuscular function of the perineum and digital palpation of the rectum.
- In this patient a past medical history of sexually transmitted diseases, having a recent bladder infection and BPH are necessary
- Physical examination may reveal tenderness and enlarged prostate or soft prostate glands on palpation.
Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2014). Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. (8th ed.)
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